Sunday, 18 March 2012

Procedures to counter coronary artery disease

An example of a drug-eluting stent. This is the TAXUS Express2 Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System, which releases paclitaxel.
Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) 
Grafting an artery or vein from elsewhere (typically the leg) to bypass a stenotic coronary artery.
Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) 
Pneumatically assisting the heart move blood through cuffs on the legs.
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) 
Procedures to treat stenotic coronary arteries by accessing through a blood vessel.
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) 
Enlarging the lumen of a coronary artery by forcibly expanding it with a balloon.
Enlarging the lumen of a coronary artery by removal of atherosclerotic plaque.
Enlarging the lumen of a coronary artery by forcibly expanding it with a metal wire tube.

Devices used in cardiology

A stethoscope.
Acoustic device for hearing internal sounds including heart sounds.
Devices used to maintain normal electrical rhythm
An implanted electrical device that replaces the heart's natural pacemaker.
Electrical devices to alter the heart's rhythm with electrical energy.
Automated external defibrillator (AED) 
An external defibrillator that is commonly found outside of health care settings. Often designed for anyone to use.
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) 
An implanted device to prevent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation).
Devices used to maintain blood pressure
Artificial heart
An internal pump that wholly replaces the pumping action of the heart.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) / heart-lung machine 
External pump to take over the function of both the heart and lungs.
Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) 
A balloon placed in the thoracic aorta to supplement cardiac output from the heart.
Ventricular assist device
Internal pump to supplement or replace the pumping action of a ventricle.

Diagnostic tests and procedures

Cardiologists use diagrams like this: a heart with an ECG indicator
Various cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures.
Blood tests
Echocardiography ("echo") 
Ultrasonography of the heart to inspect chambers, valves, and blood flow.
Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) 
Echocardiogram of the heart through the thorax external to the body.
Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) 
Echocardiogram of the heart through a catheter placed in the esophagus.
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) 
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart that utilizes the ECG for gating and to look at specific mechanical functions of the heart.
Cardiac stress test
Testing of the cardiovascular system through controlled exercise or drugs.
Listening to sounds (e.g., heart sounds) with a stethoscope.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) 
Measurement of the electrical activity of the heart, typically with 4 or 10 electrodes on the skin.
Holter monitor
Portable ECG device for continuous monitoring.
Electrophysiology study
Studying the electrical activity of the heart through the use of catheters placed in the heart via veins or arteries.
Blood pressure cuff used to measure arterial blood pressure.
Cardiac marker
Testing for biomarkers in the blood that may indicate various conditions.
Coronary catheterization
Catheterization of the coronary arteries.
Fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) 
Testing of the flow through a stenosis of a coronary artery to determine the perfusion of the heart.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) 
Ultrasonography of a coronary artery.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) 
Testing through the use of optical scattering for coronary artery disease.

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